There are multiple causes of adverse drug reactions, some of which are preventable. Pharmacogenomics accounts for app. 80% variability in drug efficacy and safety. Over 400 genes are clinically relevant in drug metabolism, and app. 200 pharmagenes are associated with adverse drug reactions. The condition of extensive metabolizer in the european (caucasian) population is lower than 20%, and about 60% of patients are exposed to potential adverse drug reactions.

Expert opinion: The regulatory Agencies should make recommendations to the pharmaceutical industry in favor of the introduction of pharmacogenomics in drug development and the inclusion of pharmacogenomic information on drug labels, with specific warnings for the population at risk.

Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 2019, vol 12, No. 5, 407-442, Taylor & Francis Group.

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