Supporting Informations2022-09-05T11:01:31+00:00

Supporting Informations

On this page you will find detailed information on the use and interpretation of Personal Medical Profile.

If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at


For most people, there are many medical and technical words in the report. Below we explain the meaning of the words.


A biomarker (short for biological markers) is a sign in your body system that can be used as an indicator for normal or abnormal process or condition or disease.

In this test only your enzymes or transporters relevant for medical metabolism or changes are examined.


For a medicine to be removed from the body, it must be excreted. In this report, excretion should be understood as a transformation of the drug so it can be removed from the body. It does not include excretion through the kidneys, or other organs except where specifically mentioned.

Gene variation/gene mutation

A change that occurs in a person’s genetic information, the parts that make up our genetic material. These changes can affect many different functions in the body. In this test, we only look for changes in enzymes or transporters that affect how medicine gets through your body.


Your genotype is inherited from your parents.

A genotype is a person’s collection of genes. Humans are diploid organisms, which means you have two copies of each chromosome – one from each of your parents.


Some medications need to be activated by an enzyme before one can have any effect. Other times, the medicine must be converted by enzymes in the body before the body can dispose it.


A phenotype is the clinical presentation of your genotype such as your height, your blood type, your eye color, and hair color etc.

In this context we only describe the changes found in your genotype that relates to how medicines are influenced by your personal genotype – e.g., you are a poor metabolizer of the medication, a rapid metabolizer etc.


How well the body responds to a particular type of medicine. Low sensitivity means that more medicine is needed to have an effect.

Uptake of medicines

For most medicines to work in the body, for example after eating a tablet, they need to be transported through the gut into the bloodstream and then onwards.

Not all the world’s medicine is included in the report. This is because there is insufficient international scientific evidence for a pharmacogenomic conclusion.

Personal Medical Profile includes medical recommendations based on assessments by international scientific societies, CPIC, FDA and EMA. Links to additional medical informations are included.

Personal Medical Profile automatically updates all patients’ reports as soon as new consensus becomes available.

The reports are free of influence from the pharmaceutical industry. All medications are listed with the active ingredient instead of a brand from a selected company.

Recommendations are based on the patient’s own genetic data.

Further genetic studies via sequencing may reveal other functional variations carried by the individual that affect the medical response.

Patients are asked not to change or stop taking their medication without prior agreement with their doctor.

Please be aware that there may be several other factors that may affect response to medication such as age, organ function, smoking, lifestyle etc.


Cardiovascular diseases (e.g. high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, arrhythmia)


Infections caused by viruses, fungi or bacteria

Gastrointestinal diseases (e.g. reflux, nausea, inflammatory bowel disease)

Mental health/psychiatry (e.g. anxiety, depression, ADHD, PTSD)

Neurological conditions (e.g. epilepsy, tremor, spasm)

Contraception and gynaecology

Urinary incontinence

The results are a decision support tool for patients, doctors and pharmacists to help take genetic factors into account when choosing a medical treatment for a patient.

Provided you get the patient’s consent, you can access one patient’s report. You can also choose to get a free clinic account, so you can view all your patient reports with one login. You request a clinic account at

You can access via computer/mobile or as a pdf.

As the patient’s doctor, you can share the results with the hospital, pharmacy or other specialists. This is done immediately via the “share” button. However, the patient must give consent. This can be done via the system, if the patient has online access. If the patient does not have online access, you can enter the consent in the patient record as documentation.

If a medication is marked in red, this means in some cases that the medication is not suitable for the patient and an alternative must be chosen. In other cases, however, it can be used if you take certain precautions, such as increased monitoring. The result gives a specific recommendation for each patient.

A green flag means that the relationship proven between gene and drug does not influence the effect of the drug. However, this does not mean that patients cannot experience side effects – the usual precautions will still apply, as many factors other than genetics also influence the body’s response to a drug (e.g. smoking, obesity, physical activity, organ function, other diseases).

If you change your e-mail, phone or address, please contact us at: and we will help you update your data.

Genetelligence EU

Danish University of Technology, Science Park

Agern Alle 24

DK-2970 Hoersholm


Can pharmacogenomics be used in development of drugs?2021-02-02T13:29:50+00:00

Yes. Utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict patient response to drugs in early-phase clinical development, pharmacogenomics are used in the pharmaceutical industry in their endeavour to produce new drugs that are highly efficient in terms of safety and efficacy.

Researchers are now using genomic information to find or design drugs aimed at subgroups of patients with specific genetic profiles.

Researchers are also using pharmacogenomic tools to search for drugs that target specific molecular and cellular pathways involved in disease.

Read more detail in e.g., Burt and Dhillon, Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development, Pharmacogenomics. 2013 July ; 14(9): 1085-1097


What might pharmacogenomics mean to me?2021-02-02T13:31:50+00:00

Until recently, drugs have been developed with the idea that each drug works pretty much the same in everybody. But genomic research has changed that “one size fits all” approach and opened the door to more personalized approaches to using and developing drugs.

Depending on your genetic makeup, some drugs may work more or less effectively for you than they do in other people. Likewise, some drugs may produce more or fewer side effects in you than in someone else. In the near future and with your consent, doctors will be able to routinely use information about your genetic makeup to choose those drugs and doses that offer the greatest chance of helping you.


Does the PMP contain information on all medication?2021-02-02T13:35:54+00:00

A number of commonly used medicines are not included in PMP – this is due to the fact that there has not been made enough scientific research about the correlation between gene variations and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medicine.

Some of the medicine not described in PMP – e.g., paracetamol – are old drugs that are generically substituted and no longer of interest to medicine companies or doctors to study clinically. There will, therefore, probably never be sufficient documentation to implement the drug into PMP.

Worldwide a bit more than 230 of current medical drugs can be a target for a pharmacogenomic test. PMP have included around 200 –
the rest is in approval phase and will be integrated at a later time.

Are the recommendations influenced by the pharmaceutical industry?2021-02-01T18:58:24+00:00

Personal Medicine Profile are fully independent and have no interests in recommending a particular Brand from a particular pharmaceutical company – we propose treatment recommendations for more than 200 medical ingredients, but not Brands.

Where can I see my results?2021-02-02T13:39:16+00:00

Click on “My Results” up to the right on the top of this homepage and a new browser window will open directly to the portal where you can find your result using your two-fase-identification.If you have forgotten your password, click on  “Forgot your password”.


Can PMP be used for children and adolescents2021-02-02T13:40:23+00:00

Systems and processes such as e.g., the metabolic system, the hemostatic system as well as the biotransformation of drugs are still developing in children.

Much medicine will, therefore, act differently in children compared to adults. Although the genetic variations are stable in children, treatment heterogeneity may differ in childhood.

However, PMP can be used for children as the genes are the same for the rest of their life if you are not exposed to e.g., radioactivity or the like. We simply recommend that the clinical consequences and dose adjustments are further adjusted by a pediatrician or used only when the child becomes an adult.

What are the risks associated with PMP?2021-02-02T13:44:21+00:00

Please, do not change or stop taking medicine based on the PMP without your doctors approval.

A pharmacogenomic test result does not provide answers to all factors relevant to optimal drug selection. Your lifestyle, exercise habits, smoking, organ function, nutritional status and current medicine are important considerations that your doctor must summarize before choosing therapy.



Is PMP a one-time investment?2021-02-02T13:46:40+00:00

Yes, Personal Medicine Profile analysis must be carried out only once – it is a one-time investment.
The test result does not have to be repeated as it is the case for e.g., blood samples for medical conditions.

Your report (result) is automatically updated with new medicine as soon as the international scientific evidence of the relation between gene variation and the medicine’s metabolism is established. This means that the hospital department / the doctor/ the patient/ the pharmacy will be able to use the on-line test result again and again  when you are re-admitted to the Healthcare sector.

What about the data security and GDPR2021-02-02T13:51:13+00:00

All data are kept at a secure location. Processing servers are split into sections with full back-up service and are separated from other data bases such as CRM and homepage.

Data security set-up are following the rules of “privacy by design”.

A personal bar-code is a recurring anonymous ID for a patient sample, in the lab when genotyping, at the department for bioinformatics and are also stored in the data portal together with the result report.

For the sake of the Authorities demands to traceability, we keep the patients contact data and ID-control data in our PMP-system. These information are given to us under consent. The data can be seen only by customers and administrators with authorization.

According to European law is not allowed to see gene information at a detailed level.

A consent form can be withdrawn within 48 hours. This is done by sending a mail to following a subsequent ID-procedure.

A consent form can also be changed e.g., if you change Doctor or move to another location. In this case it takes a bit longer and involves a written consent form from the new Doctor.

How is the process when changing medicine cf. PMP?2020-11-26T13:34:03+00:00

It is important to emphasize that the PMP report should be seen as a “Decision Support Tool”.

The doctor is not exempt from assessing the patient’s additional conditions in relation to PMP recommendations: Age, lifestyle, organ function, smoking, abuse, comorbidity etc.

In cases where the PMP report recommends a dose adjustment or a change of drug, the patient must always have the changes approved and managed by their doctor.

Based on the PMP report, the patient must NOT stop taking medicine or change his or her medicine without the Doctors approval.

Does the PMP provide information on Drug-Gene interactions2021-02-01T19:02:59+00:00

Yes – in all cases where evidence-based data is available.

Drug-gene interaction occurs when the genotype affects a patient’s ability to metabolize or actively transport a drug substance.

Does the PMP provide info on Drug-Drug-Gene interaction?2021-02-01T19:04:19+00:00

Yes – in cases where evidence-based data is available. A drug-drug-gene interaction occurs when both the patient’s CYP450 or transporter genotype and another drug in the patient’s treatment regimen affect the metabolization or transport of a drug.

Does the PMP provide information on Gene-Gene interactions?2021-02-01T19:02:01+00:00

Yes – in cases where evidence-based data is available. A drug-drug-gene interaction occurs when both the patient’s CYP450 or transporter genotype and another drug in the patient’s treatment regimen affect the metabolization or transport of a drug.

Does the PMP provide information on Drug-Drug interaction?2021-02-01T19:05:34+00:00

Yes – in all cases where evidence-based data is available, the report includes information on pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions, i.e., when the interaction occurs as a result of two drug substances competing for the same CYP450 enzyme or the same transporter.

Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions often cause undesirable side effects.

Drug-drug interactions can increase or decrease exposure to a drug, affecting the efficiency or safety.

Can PMP be used for patients taking herbal medicines2021-02-02T13:52:33+00:00

Yes, PMP can be performed on patients who take herbal medicine and nutritional supplement. However, one must pay attention to the fact that herbal medicine may affect the absorption of drugs into the intestinal tract and it may, therefore, affect the effects of ordinary medicine.

PMP does not include herbal remedies and nutritional supplements in its report

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